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In modern metropolitan areas, the metro is one of the fastest types of public transport. The first underground underground line was launched on January 10, 1863 in London. The construction of the tracks was carried out by the company "Metropolitan Railways" (which means "capital railways" in English).
However, the common sense of the word "metro" and the common abbreviation for "metro" originated in Paris. For the construction of the Paris metro, it was decided to create a separate company "Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris" (translated from French - "Parisian metropolitan railway company").
Gradually, such words as "metro", "metro" acquired the meaning of an urban off-street railroad in French, and then passed into other languages, including Russian.
The largest metros in the world are presented in several categories. In terms of the number of stations and the length of routes, the largest one is in New York. The length of the lines is in Shanghai (420 kilometers) and London (408 kilometers). According to the annual and daily passenger flow - in Tokyo and Moscow.
Numerous metro stations are true masterpieces of the art of building. This article presents the most beautiful metro stations in the entire world.
Station "Kievskaya", Moscow, Russia. The Moscow metro stations leave an unforgettable impression on the guests of the city. They amaze with their regal architecture. But, nevertheless, there is a real "pearl" among the many stations. The Kievskaya metro station has been appreciated by world experts and named "the most exquisite". Its design was developed back in the 30s of the twentieth century. In those days, the leading direction in the architecture and art of the country was "Soviet monumental classicism" (aka "Stalin's Empire"). That is why passengers are greeted by massive candelabra, bas-reliefs and frescoes, arched ceilings with stucco molding, so vividly reminiscent of the decoration of a real palace. The decoration here is dedicated to Soviet Ukraine and the theme of the reunification of Ukraine with Russia. The station is decorated with a large number of paintings. On the vault above the pylons, in molded medallions, there are 24 frescoes depicting workers of various specialties (architects, vegetable growers, railway workers, athletes, power engineers, livestock breeders, chemical scientists, and so on). The pylons are finished with light marble and are additionally decorated with a colored ceramic cornice. At the end of the station, there is a large panel depicting folk festivities celebrating the 300th anniversary of the reunification of the two states. A similar setting in some other metro is probably difficult to find. Despite such a pronounced "Soviet" theme, you seem to find yourself in the underground royal mansions.
Station "Drassanes", Barcelona, Spain. Station "Drassanes" was built in 1968. On-A Arquitectura has recently developed a new design for the Barcelona Metro. For the reconstruction, a project was used by young architects of thirty years Eduardo Gutiérrez Munné and Jordi Fernández Río. The artists had to work in a confined, almost compressed space. And the best thing that came to their mind was to turn the station into a real train. The walls of the tunnel, smoothly turning into the floor, are covered with white concrete. The floor structure is reliably protected from vibrations. The ceilings are painted with black paint. An important element that emphasizes the contrasts is the white lamps in the form of broken lines. The walls of the station crossings are decorated with bright mosaics.
Stockholm Metro, Sweden. All stations of the Stockholm underground are decorated with unusual installations and real works of art. At 100 underground stops, you can see art objects created by 140 artists precisely to decorate tunnels. Traveling on public transport has never been so exalted. No wonder the Stockholm metro is sometimes called the world's longest art gallery. However, this transport system surprises not only with its non-standard design. Many stations boast unusual architecture that amazes visitors to the Swedish capital. The T-centralen station, opened in 1975, is recognized as the most original. A huge fresco was applied directly to the underground soil, as a result of which the station resembles a cave. Thus, the architect reminds passengers that Stockholm is built on rocky terrain.
Munich Metro, Germany. Munich underground is one of the youngest in the world. It was only opened in 1972. Today, this transport network stretches for 103 kilometers. Thanks to its 100% equipment with lifts, travelators and escalators, as well as a well-thought-out system of transfers, the Munich subway is rightfully considered one of the most comfortable in Europe. However, nowhere in the world can you find such a riot of imagination, a subtle sense of color and style. These are not just stations, but rather scenery from fairy tales or science fiction movies. It remains only to envy the locals, who can enjoy such beauty from day to day. A perfect interweaving of classic and urban design trends.
Metropolitan New York, USA. The largest metro system in the world in terms of the number of stations and the length of routes contains 468 stations, comprising 26 routes. 153 stations are flyovers, 38 are located at ground level and 277 are underground. The deepest is "191 Street" (translated from English - "191 street") - it is located at a depth of 60 m. Unfortunately, most stations, with the exception of new ones, as well as a number of transfer hubs, are not adapted for the access of people with disabilities ...
The crowded metro is a hallmark of the busiest city in the United States. Everyone is always in a hurry on some business, absolutely immersed in their own thoughts. In order to bring a piece of sophistication and food for the soul to the boiling life of the inhabitants of the metropolis, the best artists from all over the world have created a unique atmosphere for many stations. However, here's a valuable tip: before you go exploring the New York subway, you should definitely get acquainted with the on-line guide, who will tell you how not to miss a single entertaining art object, which abounds in the subway.
Dubai Metro. On September 9, 2009 at 9 o'clock 9 minutes and 9 seconds, the Dubai high-speed metro opened its doors for the first time. And two years later the second line was already opened here. But the long preparations were worth the effect achieved. So far, only two branches have been built and are functioning, which include only forty-six stations. However, their design excites the imagination. The metro gives the impression of a picture from the future, not only from the inside, but also from the outside. Light enters the ground through small windows. The air at all metro stations, crossings and trains is conditioned and maintained at 20 ° C. The striking architecture of the land area attracts many tourists from all over the world. A general architectural style has been developed for the metro - the stations are covered with an unusual dome that covers the interior. This is how the architects are going to change all the traditional ideas about the design and construction of metro systems.
Station "Iidabashi", Tokyo, Japan. Each medal, as they say, has two sides. Likewise, the metro of the capital of Japan, on the one hand, is recognized as the busiest underground transport system in the world and, on the other hand, one of the most non-standard in terms of architecture and design. The Oedo line is especially famous for its interesting interiors and unusual art objects. Iidabashi Station was designed by renowned Makoto Sei Watanabe Architects. The underground stop was built in 2000. The structure of its façade consists of sheet steel complemented by various glass elements. The interior also deserves attention. It is worth visiting for its contemporary design. For example, along the escalator line, visitors are greeted by a light green geometric sculpture. Reflecting the fast pace of city life and the spirit of high technology, most of the décor is 3D. The station design is rightfully recognized as one of the most original in the world.
Museum Station, Toronto, Canada. Most of the Toronto metro stations are built according to standard layouts. Space-planning solutions incorporated in their architecture are economical. Finishing materials are generally simple, durable, cheap and have proven themselves in operation. At the same time, the stations are designed to handle maximum passenger traffic at minimum construction costs, however, they meet the required standards of comfort for passengers and service personnel. Thus, metro stations are mostly of purely functional design. However, located directly below the Royal Ontario Museum, the Museum Station stands out against the backdrop of gray interiors. It was renovated under the direction of the architect Daniel Libeskind. The designer replaced traditional pillars-pillars with entertaining museum exhibits - Egyptian sarcophagi, totem poles and statues of the Mayan tribe. They leave an unforgettable experience. The walls of the station are decorated with massive aluminum coverings with hieroglyphs that denote its name. In addition, an interesting fact is that visitors to the Toronto Museum itself can immediately get into the subway. One has only to go through a special passage directly from the metro station.
Line "A" of the Prague metro, Czech Republic. Samples of innovative design and even the most real masterpieces of modern art are not always waiting for tourists in art galleries. And Line A of the Prague metro is the best proof of that. Chronologically, this line is the second in the system. It was opened in 1978 and most expanded in the 80s of the XX century. Today its length is 11 kilometers and includes 13 stations. The line design is very original. The combination of various textures, materials and colors makes this metro unique. Many of the best works of modern architecture can envy such a bright and bold decision. Such an interior is not only pleasing to the eye, but also contributes to the quick orientation of passengers in the metro system.
Panoramic tunnel, Shanghai, China. The Shanghai Metro is the longest line in the world (420 kilometers). The daily passenger traffic is over 7 million people. However, the panoramic tunnel in Shanghai requires special attention. The length of the "attraction" is only 647 meters. This transport system connects the two historic districts of the city. A short, but very exciting trip awaits the passengers. It is as if you are transported to a parallel world. Such an unusual effect is achieved with the help of constantly sounding music, as well as lighting and 3D effects.